EDITOR IN CHIEF 
Dr. Shahana Urooj Kazmi, PhD 
Professor of Clinical Microbiology and Public Health 
Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education 
Karachi, Pakistan. 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Syed Hani Abidi, PhD 
Assistant Professor 
Department of Biomedical Sciences 
Aga Khan University 

Karachi, Pakistan 

JOURNAL MANAGER

MUHAMMAD SHAHEEN IQBAL 
Ph.D. Scholar 
Comsats university  
Tarlai Road
Islamabad, Pakistan

COORDINATOR EDITORIAL BOARD 
Darshna Kumari 
Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education 
Karachi, Pakistan.

EDITORS 
Shahida Hasnain, PhD 
Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics 
Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics 
University of Punjab 
Lahore, Pakistan 

Abdul Hameed, PhD 
Professor 
Department of Microbiology 
Islamic University 
Islamabad, Pakistan 

Nuzhat Ahmed, PhD 
Professor 
National Institute of Blood Diseases 
Karachi, Pakistan 

Shakeel Babar, PhD 
Professor of Microbiology -CASVAB 
Baluchistan University 
Quetta, Pakistan 

Anjum Sabri, PhD 
Professor 
Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, 
University of Punjab 
Lahore, Pakistan. 

Hazir Rahman, PhD 
Associate Professor 
Abdul Wali Khan University 
Mardan, Pakistan 

Salvatore Rubino, PhD 
Dip. di Scienze Biomediche 
Universita di sassari 
Sassari –Italy 

Humberto Guerra, MD, PhD 
Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt 
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia 
Lima, Peru 

Omer Bagasra, MD, PhD 
Professor 
Claflin Centre for Biotechnology 
Claflin University, 
South Carolina, USA 

Dr Xin Yi 
Director, Department of Biotechnology 
Dalian Medical University 
Dalian City, China 

Yee-Joo Tan 
Assistant Prof Department of Microbiology 
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine 
National University Health System 
National University of Singapore 
Singapore. 

Dr. Tayabba Ijaz, PhD 
Department of Microbiology 
King Edward University - Mayo Hospital 
Lahore, Pakistan 

Shaheen Sharafat, PhD 
Department of Pathology 
Dow University of Health Sciences 
Karachi, Pakistan 

James A. Hoch, PhD 
Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine 
The Scripps Research Institute 
La Jolla, California, USA 

Eliseo Eugenin, PhD 
Associate Professor 
The Public Health Research Institute Center 
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics 
Rutgers Medical School -Rutgers University, 
New Jersey, USA 

Hussain Abidi, PhD 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 
Cambridge, MA 02140, USA 

Jim Mclaughlin, PhD 
Diagnostic Microbiology Development Program 
University of Health Sciences 
Phnom Penh, Cambodia 

Nusrat Malik, PhD 
Associate Professor 
Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education 
Karachi, Pakistan 

Amber Farooqui, PhD 
Associate Professor 
Institute of Infection and Immunity 
China 

Roquya Siddiqui, PhD 
Professor of Microbiology 
University of Karachi 
Karachi, Pakistan 

Saleem Hafeez, PhD 
Professor 
Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation 
Karachi, Pakistan 

Aqeel Ahmed, PhD 
Professor 
Barrett Hodgson University 
Karachi, Pakistan 

Abdul Matin, PhD 
Professor of Microbiology 
Stanford University 
California, USA 

Tasneem Adam Ali, PhD 
Professor of Microbiology 
University of Karachi 
Karachi, Pakistan 

Mubashir A Khan, PhD 
Professor 
Umm Al Qura University 
Makkah, Saudi Arabia 

S. Abdul Sattar, PhD 
Professor of Microbiology 
Institute of Environmental Microbiology 
University of Ottawa 
Ottawa, Canada 

Salman Siddiqui, PhD 
Consultant Microbiologist 
F- B D Diagnostics 
Baltimore, Maryland, USA 

Salvatore Massa, PhD 
Professor of Food Microbiology 
Università degli studi di Foggia, 
Foggia, Italy 

Advisory Editorial Board Member: 
A. G. Saeed, Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education 

Statistics experts: 
Maria Fletcher, PhD 
Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education 
Karachi, Pakistan.

Mudasir-ud-Din, PhD 
University of Karachi 
Karachi, Pakistan.